Car Shopping: Ways To Get The Automobile Of Your Respective Ambitions

Are you unclear about yourself when shopping for an automobile? You may feel as if you got conned before. This is why you must not assume that the vehicle salesman can be your buddy. Read on to discover more ideas. Do not permit a salesperson sell you with a vehicle you can’t genuinely afford to pay for. Regularly, people are talked into purchasing a sports car once the salesman shows them how great they search in it. Recognize that a person selling you the vehicle has an interest in commission payment, when they sell a costly vehicle, they get compensated a lot more. Check on the web for deals. Some of the finest bargains are available on the net. Once you have located the right car, you may drive to the dealership providing the motor vehicle or go to your car dealership and have them purchase the car for yourself. Obtain the dearest dependable dealership to save cash on gasoline. Usually do not go auto buying by yourself. Given that they aren’t the one generating the final decision, they could possibly help you avoid an agreement that isn’t the best to suit your needs. They can be anybody from your Mum into a colleague.

Have discussions with all those you understand the things they may possibly know personally. How can they enjoy the autos they own? Do they really really feel they paid out a good cost? Have they heard about some other autos that may be far better? When you would like to buy an automobile, this can be one method of getting some important info to help you get started out. In no way reveal the trade-in, everything you have lower, or what you wish until you have a cost ironed out. All those are items that need to further decrease the very best cost obtained. This should help you get yourself a much better bargain. Don’t consider about getting an auto coming from a car dealership. You could be shocked to discover the vehicle you want is easily offered by a non-public proprietor or tiny great deal. Check out on the internet or perhaps in classifieds to get autos available for purchase in your area. Analyze an auto by renting a similar brand name. Rent the automobile for any Saturday and Sunday to truly discover how the auto pushes. Continue a long road escape to see how the auto appears approximately the misuse. It will help you feel a lot less anxious when selecting the car. When you want to purchase vehicles, you must have a friend together with you that has very little fascination with your car acquire. A great friend can steer you away from producing an emotional or impulsive decision. You must go on a friend with you when shopping to enable them to support. Check with the dealership to let you possess the automobile examined through the technician you possess.

This auto mechanic should be 1 you can rely on. Avoid using the dealer’s mechanic. He or she can provide a wise idea of in which the vehicle holders. Do not purchase a second hand car without doing some investigation. It really is possible to use certain web sites to find out the need for a vehicle. In order to find out of the amount of a vehicle, go ahead and use NADA or Kelly Glowing blue Publication. In the event the dealer attempts to get additional than what these options say, leave. Each and every salesman which you experience could have an alternative individuality. Despite the fact that auto sales representatives are renowned for employing high-pressure strategies, these methods are losing performance. An increasing number of car dealerships now realize that if they do not drive buyers, the customers will probably be happier and can get back to provide them with a lot more business. Tend not to think twice to walk far from an overbearing salesman. You can actually get a more sympathetic salesperson. Mileage and fuel overall economy needs to be important factors when shopping for a fresh vehicle. It can be more expensive to acquire a gasoline efficient auto, but you’ll save more after a while. Consider this when you’re thinking of getting a brand new automobile and think about your financial budget long lasting as well.

Will not search for a dealer just before performing some investigation into it. Make queries to find out if existing customers are satisfied. Also, you can examination this department to determine if these are on his or her video game. Stick to a car dealership that has knowledgeable staff on hand. If you discover out it comes with an advertising and marketing cost inside your car’s price, notify the car dealership to eliminate it. You must not be accountable for that. When they demand, threaten just to walk. They are going to stop you and present in. Be sure you look for discounts ahead of obtaining a motor vehicle. A lot of auto product sales places offer you a rebate to create the selling just a little quicker in the end. Car dealerships that aren’t that ethical may not even tell you about this rebate and get that cash without the need of at any time telling you about it. You don’t have to accept the first offer given to you. Unless you consider you will get a good price you possibly will not be. You should work out. As a result, you need to utilize the techniques specified herein in case you are to achieve genuine good results.

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Mustang Performance Parts – Maximizing Performance

Automobiles are considered as one of the biggest industries of the world, as automobiles are nearly used by every common man. The field of automobiles is very popular yet it is full of competition and it's all about innovation and creativity. Ford Motors have their own name in the field of automobiles and they are known as the king of racing cars in the field of Automobiles.

Mustang is a brand of automobiles which was launched by the Ford Motor Company. In the beginning it was established and based on Ford Falcon, a compact car. The Ford Company started the production of Mustang in March, 1964 at Virginia, USA and launched it in a very big exhibition at New York World fair.

Mustang started producing the pony cars, which become very famous in USA. They gave a very tough competition to their peers, like GM, barracuda and others. Mustang also launched many coupes which were exported by America.

Nowadays, there is a very big name of Ford Mustang due to its performance, as it is one of the most favorite cars of the racers and. All the models of Mustang provide you the opportunity to run your normal car at a very high speed. The performance of Mustang cars is due to their performance parts.

After launching the Mustang new models, Ford Motors also launched many additional products in the market for mustang lovers. It's a common trend to make a car faster than others and these performance components precisely serve this purpose. Modifying your car by adding these parts will give you better performance and good results.

There are many performance accessories to upgrade your car but the important and major parts are as following:

1. Exhaust Pipes
2. Mustang Exhaust
3. Mustang Headers
4. Mustang Intake
5. Mustang Pulley

These five are the main parts which are necessary to upgrade your car. Because all these parts directly affects the performance of your car, so if you want to make your car faster and speedier, then always take care of all these parts.

Mustang is now offering a wide range of functional parts. Each of these parts has their own abilities and each part is necessary in affecting the car's performance. The Ford Mustang Exhausts are very common and are the most favorite parts of the racers. The latest exhausts are very big and have tendency to increase the acceleration and shoot of the car. It also gives a fabulous look to your car.

Mustang Intakes are also very good from the aspect of performance. These intakes have capability to work twice a time more than the ordinary intake. These intakes are exclusively made for the Mustang vehicles and give performance. These intakes have the latest technology which never heats up the engine.

Ford Motors launched several vehicles of Mustang but the vehicles of fifth generation of Mustang had outstanding results. Racing vehicles of mustang from 2005 to 2008 also showed greater results when compared to the older ones because these additional performance enhancing parts were installed in these cars.

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Automobile Accident Litigation: Overturning the Unfavorable Police Report

Introduction: The Police Report is against your client. Now what? Over the last sixteen years of practicing personal injury and automobile accident law, it has been our experience that the quality of traffic accident investigations has steadily declined, leaving many injured people further harmed by a poor or incomplete police report. The reasons are as follows: government budget issues, poor police officer training, and a lack of commitment to performing a complete accident investigation. Certain well meaning police officers are just not qualified to investigate a complicated catastrophic car, truck or pedestrian injury or death case.

If the police report is against your client an insurance adjuster may not want to make a reasonable settlement offer. As a result the case may be difficult to resolve in a positive way for an injured client. A lawsuit may need to be filed and depositions of the witnesses, drivers, and investigating police officers taken to rebut the police report’s conclusion. If the facts can be developed, it is the attorney’s job to show the insurance adjuster, a judge or jury that the police officer got it wrong.

As we unpack the issues involved in overturning the unfavorable police report we will be discussing the following topics:

A. What is a Traffic Collision Report?

B. Who Has Standing to Obtain a Copy of the Traffic Collision Report?

C. Is the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Admissible at Trial?

D. Are the Witness Statements Within a Police Report Admissible at Trial?

E. Proving the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Is Wrong.

A. What is a Traffic Collision Report?

The Traffic Collision Report or CHP 555 is the standard reporting tool for most all police officer traffic investigators in California. It is intended to satisfy the basic data requirement needs of all users of traffic collision information.

The box on page 2 of the CHP 555 identifies the Primary Collision Factor. Primary Collision factor is defined by the CHP as; “PRIMARY COLLISION FACTOR. Select the one element or driving action which in the officer’s opinion, best describes the primary or main cause of the collision. Whenever possible, this should be a Vehicle Code (VC) violation.”

The term Other Associated Factor is defined by the CHP as; “OTHER ASSOCIATED FACTORS(S). When a secondary violation has been determined to have contributed to the collision, write the VC section in the appropriate box.”

B. Who Has Standing to Obtain a Copy of the Traffic Collision Report?

Drivers involved in car accidents are required by statute to file reports with the California Highway Patrol or local police department, Vehicle Code section 20008. People with a “proper interest” can obtain copies of a police report, Vehicle Code section 20012.

The parties involved in the accident or any other persons having a “proper interest” may obtain copies of a police report. This includes persons involved in later accidents at the same location because the reports may disclose highway conditions causing or contributing to their own accident. See, California ex rel. Dept. of Transp. v. Sup.Ct. (Hall), 37 C3d at 855.

C. Is the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Admissible at Trial?

There are two distinctions regarding admissibility. First is the admissibility of the report itself. The second issue is the admissibility of an officer’s ultimate opinion or conclusion. These are both separate and distinct evidentiary issues.

California Vehicle Code section 20013 states, “No such accident report shall be used as evidence in any trial, civil or criminal, arising out of an accident. The rule against admitting police reports into evidence is well established, Fernandez v. Di Salvo Appliance Co, 179 Cal App 2d 240; Summers v. Burdick 191 Cal App 2d 464 at 470. The policy behind Vehicle Code section 20013 is to protect against the danger of the jury giving more weight to the police report’s conclusion simply because of its “official” character. There is a danger that the “official” police report alone may be relied upon to determine the verdict. As a result the contents of a traffic collision report should be excluded. Sherrell v. Kelso 116 Cal App 3d Supp 22 at 31.

However a police officer witness disclosed in conformity with a California Evidence Code section 2034 demand, who also qualifies as an expert witness, with sufficient experience and training, may give an opinion on the factors involved in causing an accident. Hart v. Wielt 4 Cal App 3d 224. In Hart a 13 year veteran of the California Highway Patrol, with extensive training and schooling in accident investigation was allowed to given an opinion on the proper speed given the conditions. The case involved a vehicle which slid out of control while maneuvering a sharp curve on State Highway 32 going towards Chester. Before the officer gave his opinion on speed the trial judge admonished the Jury that it was up to them to make the final determination of a proper speed and also whether or not the CHP officer was qualified as an expert witness.

In the case of Kastner v. Los Angeles Metro. Transit Auth 63 Cal 2d 52, a police officer deemed qualified by reason of his special knowledge, training and experience was allowed to give an opinion on the point of impact between a bus and a pedestrian. The opinion was based almost entirely on a statement given to the officer by the defendant bus driver at the scene. The bus driver testified at trial identical to the statement given to the police officer at the scene. This removed any argument that the officer’s opinion was based on inadmissible hearsay. The Supreme Court in Kastner acknowledged that the trial judge must first determine whether or not the jury is aided by the expert opinion or if the question is within the common experience of an ordinary person, hence and expert’s opinion would not be necessary, see Kastner at page 57.

In summary, the hard copy of the police report itself stays out of evidence. However if the foundation is present for an expert opinion from the police officer, the ultimate opinion in some form may find its way into evidence. But first the offering party must establish the subject of the opinion is sufficiently beyond common experience, the police officer has the appropriate qualifications, and the opinion is based on reliable evidence, see California Evidence Code sections 720 and 801.

D. Are the Witness Statements Within a Police Report Admissible at Trial?

Generally police reports contain statements of plaintiff, defendant, and non-party percipient witnesses. Whether or not these statements are admissible depends on whether or not they are hearsay. California Evidence code section 1200 states, “Hearsay evidence” is evidence of a statement that was made other than by a witness while testifying at the hearing and that is offered to prove the truth of the matter stated.”

What is admissible? Most commonly statements in police reports made by the plaintiff or defendant will come into evidence via an established hearsay exception. Admissions from a plaintiff or defendant are the most commonly relied upon hearsay exceptions, Cal. Evidence Code Sections 1220-1227. Also statements of a non-party percipient witness may come into evidence as impeachment if the witnesses’ statement at trial is shown to be inconsistent with a statement given to the police officer, California Evidence Code section 791.

E. Proving the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Is Wrong.

They key establishing a factual showing that the police officer got it wrong is a complete investigation of the foundation of the officer’s opinion. For accidents in congested urban areas it is common for an investigating officer to only speak to the one or two witnesses who are willing to wait around at the scene and talk to the officer. When a witness sees that other people have come forward to volunteer as witnesses, most people simply leave the scene thinking they are not needed.

Some witnesses that are actually spoken to by a police officer are only spoken to for a short period of time, in an abbreviated manner that leaves out critical details of how the witnesses’ attention was drawn to the accident, what they actually saw versus what they think may have happened. The typical police officer statement is a summary of what was said to the officer. An oral witness statement is noted by an officer in his notebook. These notes are then transferred into the typed up police report. The typical police officer procedure for taking and documenting witness statements is much less reliable than a taped audio recording of a witness. It is important to contact witnesses in the police report to determine the accuracy and foundation for the statements attributed to them by a police officer.

How do you find the witnesses who are not identified in the police report? The keys to finding additional witnesses are as follow: post signs in the surrounding area of the scene; return to the area and ask local store owners for the names of anyone they know may have see the event; look for surveillance videos that may have caught the collision itself on video; and secure the computer aided dispatch (CAD) printouts or audio recordings of the people calling in to report the accident via their cell phones. The CAD records will show the phone numbers for all of the people calling into the 911 dispatch system to report the accident. Many of these callers are good percipient witnesses whose names are not in the police report.

Any good accident investigation is not complete without a thorough accident reconstruction. In pedestrian injury cases a good time distance analysis of what the driver should have seen, at what distance from the point of impact, over what time period may be revealing. With known or estimated driving speeds an expert may be able to back up a driver’s field of view (line of sight) and determine if the driver reasonably had enough time to stop prior to the point of impact. It is extremely rare for an investigating police officer to conduct a time distance / sight line analysis, to determine whether or not a reasonable driver should have avoided the collision. A complete accident reconstruction is expensive. Think about whether or not a complete accident reconstruction is feasible given the damages involved in the case.

Conclusion: When confronted with a police report that is against your client remember the following. A police report is just a summary of the facts taken in an abbreviated manner and collected over a short period of time. Often the report is incomplete, misleading and lacking in factual foundation. If you believe in the case; do not stand down just because the police report is against your client. Conduction your own investigation and make your own determination of the extent of any driver negligence.

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Automobile Dealerships – Out of Trust – Keepers

The Necessity of a Keeper

When a lender feels its security is in jeopardy, it frequently places a keeper in the dealership. This action is usually precipitated by the lender losing its "comfort level" with the dealer.

While many dealers interpret the placing of a keeper in their dealership as a hostile action on the part of the lender, their reaction is based more upon emotion than logic. The lending officer works for a corporation and the corporation is owned by shareholders. The officer has a duty to the company and to the shareholders to protect their security.

"The act of (a lender) in placing its representatives at the plant of its debtor reflected only the natural instincts, interest and solicitude of any other creditor then in its position, and (the lender) is not on that account alone to be penalized by being declared the principal. " Commercial Credit Co. v. LA Benson Co., Inc. 184 A. 236, at 240 (Md. 1936).

See too: Cosoff v. Rodman (In re WT Grant Co.) , 699 F.2d 599 (2d Cir.) Cert. denied, at: 104 S.Ct. 89 (1983) where the court said the banks would have been derelict in their duty to their creditors and stockholders if they did not keep a careful watch on the debtor.

The lending officer did not wake up one morning and decide it would be a good idea to put a keeper in the dealership. In the typical case, the dealership had either been experiencing financial difficulties for a period of time, or a series of floor checks revealed the dealer had "sold and unpaid" vehicles of such an unusually high proportion to monthly sales, that the lender classified the vehicles as being sold out of trust. In either situation, a prudent lender must view the dealer from a different perspective.

No one can predict what a person will do under the continued pressure of serious financial difficulties. By the time a lender puts a keeper in a dealership, the burdens the dealer is shouldering have been growing for some time. The dealer usually does not fully comprehend the extent of the strain under which he or she has been functioning; but, when one faces numerous negotiations with creditors, endless days of chasing cash to make payroll and pay bills and does not have enough cash to purchase and keep a good trade, one's judgment becomes clouded. An experienced lender knows that a normally rational person can do most anything when placed under a sufficient amount pressure, for a sufficient amount of time.

When the keeper appears, the dealer rather than being vengeful or hurt should realize the dealership needs professional help and seek it. There are many ways to continue operating a dealership with a keeper and to resolve the situation, re-capitalize the store, or sell the dealership at a fair price, vis-à-vis a fire sale.

In most instances, a keeper is placed in a dealership upon the mutual consent of the dealer and the finance company. At the meeting preceding such an action, it is wise for the parties to identify, agree to and understand the specific duties and corresponding actions, of the keeper.

The Keeper's Affirmative Duties

Although the primary concern of the keeper lies in the care and custody of the floored vehicles, in most instances the lender also holds a security interest in all or part of the dealership's assets. Consequently, the keeper will want to be and should be aware of the dealer's attitude towards assets other than the floored vehicles and should report to the credit company any indication on the part of the dealer to dispose of any such assets.

The keeper, usually more than one person, will be at the dealership every business day from the time the first employee arrives, until the last employee leaves. The keeper should be responsible for:

(1) The condition, location and security of the pledged assets;

(2) Keeping the vehicles':
a. Ignition Keys
b. Dealer License Plates
c. MSOs and / or Invoices and other documentation required to transfer title.

(3) Being present when the mail is opened;

(4) Taking custody of the cash and checks;

(5) Taking custody of the unused check stock;

(6) Supervising preparation of the bank deposit and agreeing upon whom will make the deposit;

(7) The disposition of proceeds on contracts of sold vehicles, to be sure the money gets to the proper parties;

(8) Arranging for third party finance companies, which purchase the dealer's contracts, to include the lender's name on proceeds checks, or, in the alternative, to refuse to permit the dealer to contract a sale to other finance companies;

(9) Being responsible for protecting the vehicles after the dealership closes; if the vehicles cannot be blocked from exiting the facility, via a fence and "blockers", a security guard should be hired;

(10) Establishing a means of maintaining a running, daily, or semi-daily, inventory control of unsold vehicles. Only one vehicle at a time, for which the lender has not received payment, should leave the dealership, whether of not that vehicle is floored;

(11) Being aware of the activities in the Parts Department and its employees.

Courts have approved of lenders controlling the release of the bank's collateral, depositing all accounts receivable in a special banking account and requiring the counter-signature of the bank's agent for all payments from the special account [ Ford v. CE Wilson & Co. Inc. , 120 F.2d 614 (2d Cir. 1942)], receiving regular reports on the accounts payable activity, receiving estimated weekly expense budgets [ Edwards v. Northeastern Bank , 39 NC App. 261, 250 SE 2d 651 (1979)], proffering advice to the dealer, even coupled with a decision to withhold credit [ In re Beverages International, Ltd. , 50 Bankr 273 (D. Mass 1985), requiring the debtor to hire a consultant acceptable to the bank in the management and sale of the company, requiring the debtor to implement a lockbox with respect to its receivables and requiring certain individuals to pledge their stock in the debtor, to the bank [ In re. Technology for Energy Corp , 56 Bankr. 307 (ED Tenn. 1985).

Acts a Keeper Should Not Perform

If the work-out plan ever deteriorates and / or the relationship becomes hostile between the lender and the dealer, or creditors or employees of the dealer, the keeper's will come under the scrutiny of a court. In such a case, those actions could be the beginning of a basis of liability or exoneration for the lender. In order to best protect the lender, the keeper should be aware of the following:

(1) The lender has an affirmative duty not to unnecessarily, maliciously or promiscuously disclose the financial condition of its debtor and any unauthorized disclosure could be a basis for both compensatory and punitive damages. Rubenstein v. South Denver Nat'l Bank , Case No 86CA0840 (Colo. 1988);

(2) Participating in board meetings and exercising decision making authority with respect to the day to day operations of the business could make the lender liable for all of the debts of the debtor. Lurgen, Liability of a Creditor in a Control Relationship With Its Debtor , 67 Marq. Law Review 523 (1984); See too: Restatement (Second) Agency, Section 14-0, Comment "a";

(3) Evidence of personality conflicts with the borrower could support a bad faith claim by the debtor. KMC v. Irving Trust Co. , 757 F.2d 752 (6th Cir. 1985)

(4) Making threats which the lender is not prepared to carry-out, may support a fraud action against the lender. State Nat'l Bank of El Paso v. Farah Manufacturing Co. 678 SW2d 661 (Tex. App. El Paso 1984).

(5) Misleading a lender who intends to refinance the debtor, as to the debtor's financial condition may result in liability to the third party lender. General Motors Acceptance Corporation v Central National Bank of Mattoon , 773 F.2d 771 (7th Cir. 1985).

Note too: while a factory does not seem to owe a duty to protect a lender's floor plan status, to inform the lender of the fact that the dealer is going to sell, there is a triable issue of fact as to whether or not the factory has a duty to disclose the foreseeability of the dealer going out of trust. Beneficial Commercial Corp. v. Murray Glick Datsun, Inc. 601 F.Supp. 770 SDNY 1985).

Procedures for Handling Insurance and Service Contract Monies

Some lenders have experienced staffs, which understand the above issues and problems. In any case, the dealer should be aware of them and should open new trust accounts. The accounts should be opened at a separate bank, in order to avoid any misunderstandings. If the lender wishes to audit these new accounts, that is fair. If a lending officer threatens to penalize the dealer for protecting the customer's money, he or she is being unreasonable and the dealer should ascend the chain of command until reason prevails. If reason does not prevail, the dealer has hard evidence of the lender creating an untenable position, which evidence may prove useful at a later date.

The handling of the premiums for life, accident and health insurance, and for service contracts, does not create a problem, if a routine is established. Always, with respect to insurance premiums, and usually with service contracts, the sale is covered under a security agreement. The lender and dealer should agree that all "time sales" will be restricted to the lender, unless a third party financing company agrees to put the lender's name on the proceeds check, which usually does not happen.

When a time-sale is being arranged, advance approval of the lender is should be required. Subsequently, when the contract is offered to the lender for purchase, the lender should deduct the amount necessary to release the flooring. If the proceeds of sale are insufficient to clear the flooring, the keeper should have already deposited the cash down payment, and / or have taken possession of the title to the trade-in.

The proceeds of sale, in excess of the flooring, are given to the keeper, who supervises the deposit of the service contract and insurance monies to the trust account and the mailing of the premiums companies to the appropriate insurance companies. If possible, the pay-off for the traded vehicle is also made from the general account of the dealership.

The above process, while time consuming, is necessary. The parties should appreciate the understanding, patience and cooperation needed from each other in order to make the operation run smoothly. If either the keeper, or the dealer, has a problem working with the other, the problem should be discussed with the keeper's superior and resolved, or a new keeper assigned.

Procedures for Handling Payroll Monies

With respect to payroll monies, the dealership should continue with separate payroll account and the lender should agree to permit a payroll large enough for sufficient personnel to run the dealership in order to complete whatever stage of the work-out plan the parties have reached. If the dealership is winding-down sufficient payroll should be allowed for a "skeleton crew" to prepare the dealership for sale, or closing. Equipment will have to be guarded and maintained. Secretarial and accounting work will have to be completed. With respect to sales people, although they do fall within the minimum wage laws, they only get paid a commission if they make a sale and, if they do, they probably will have sold the asset for more money than the lender would get at an auction. The source of funds to cover the dealership operations is discussed in the next section.

Commissioned Salespeople

As mentioned, the commissioned salesperson gets paid a commission if and only if a contract for the sale of a vehicle cashes. They represent the best means of obtaining full value for the lender's security. Consequently, the lender, regardless of its security interest, would probably be wise to subordinate its interest to the extent necessary for the sales people to earn a reasonable commission.

Closing a dealership is covered in another article. At this point, it is enough to mention that a lender, liquidating foreclosed vehicles, would have to deduct transportation, insurance, storage and auction fees from the forced liquidation sales prices of any vehicles it sold, before receiving any monies itself. Therefore, the amount of a salesperson's commission for selling vehicles, net of the foreclosure costs, would appear to be a good investment, on the part of the lender.

An interesting question arises as to whether or not the lender has an implied duty, knowing the sales people are liquidating the inventory for the benefit of the lender, to inform the sales people that it, the lender, intends to keep all of the gross profit from the sale; and, further, if the lender, knowing it does not intend to allow the sales people to be reimbursed for their efforts, says nothing, do the sales people have an action against the lender?

In any event, the payment of employees (salaried or commissioned) should be made by the dealer from a separate payroll account. The account should be funded under the supervision of the keeper, but the lender's employees should not participate in distributing the funds. Note: Participation in distributing the company payroll could make the lender liable for taxes. 26 USC 3505 and 6672.

Division of the Discretionary Income

Vehicle Income

If a lender maintains a security interest in the dealer's vehicle inventory and if the dealership has collected and spent money for vehicles which have been sold, without reimbursing the lender for those vehicles, then the dealership's gross profits from all future vehicle sales should be applied to reduce the number of sold and unpaid units. The cash profits from such sales should be applied immediately to the lender's debt, such as vehicle gross profit, finance and insurance commissions and service contract profits. Factory rebate money and incentive monies should be assigned to the lender and applied to the borrower's debt only upon receipt of the actual cash.

Service Department Income

Unless the dealership is averaging a 100% service absorption rate of its fixed overhead expense, which is unlikely, trying to operate a dealership on the service department's income will be difficult, if not impossible. If the lender is unable or unwilling to allow these monies to be applied to the general operating fund of the dealership, it means the lender has decided to close the dealership, whether it believes so or not.

The service department monies include gross profits from parts, service, labor and the body shop, if the dealership has one. The percentage of all fixed overhead expenses covered by this profit reversing the dealership's absorption rate.

If the dealership is being sold or closed, these monies should be used to complete the payrolls necessary to accomplish an orderly transition or liquidation.

As always, consult with a qualified attorney whenever dealing with out of trust situations.

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The US Automotive Industry and The Big Three

We have a proud car culture in the United States but, surprisingly, not many people know too much about this country’s automotive history. For this history lesson, we are focusing on the automotive “industry” rather than the history of the automobile itself.

When It All Began

In the 1890s, the American automotive industry began and, thanks to the use of mass-production and the large size of the domestic market, quickly evolved into the largest automotive industry in the world (though this title would be taken from the U.S. by Japan in the 1980s and then from Japan by China in 2008).

The U.S. motor vehicle industry actually started with hundreds of manufacturers, but by the end of the 1920s, three companies stood apart from the rest:

  1. General Motors
  2. Ford
  3. Chrysler

The Big Three

These three companies continued to prosper, even after the Great Depression and World War II. Henry Ford began building cars back in 1896 and started the Ford-Motor Company in 1903. Ford utilized the first conveyor belt-based assembly line in 1913, improving mass production of its Model T. The assembly line decreased costs significantly and the Model T sold so well that it propelled Ford into the largest automobile company in the U.S.

General Motors was founded by William Durant (formerly a carriage maker)n in 1908. In the first couple of years, GM acquired Buick, Oldsmobile, Oakland (later to become Pontiac), Cadillac, and a number of other car companies. Durant also wanted to acquire Ford but Henry Ford opted to keep his company independent. Having become a little to “acquisition-happy,” Durant over-extended the company and was forced out by a group of banks who took controlling interest in the company. Durant then teamed up with Louis Chevrolet and founded Chevrolet in 1913, which became a quick success. Durant retook majority control in GM after acquiring enough stock and GM acquired Chevrolet in 1917. This did not last long, however. Durant was forced out again in 1921. In the late 1920s, GM overtook Ford as the largest automaker.

The former president of Buick and a former executive of GM, Walter Chrysler took control of the Maxwell Motor Company in 1920, revamped it, and reorganized it into Chrysler Corporation in 1925. Chrysler acquired Dodge Brothers in 1927 and, in 1928, introduced the DeSoto and Plymouth brands thanks to the dealer network and manufacturing facilities that came with the Dodge acquisition. By the 1930s, Chrysler overtook Ford and became the second largest automaker.

1950s and Beyond

By 1950, America produced almost 75 percent of all automobiles in the world. At the start of the 1970s, however, U.S. auto companies (especially the Big Three) were severely affected by increased competition from foreign auto manufacturers and high oil prices. In subsequent years, companies bounced back occasionally but the crisis reached its pinnacle in 2008, prompting Chrysler and General Motors to file for bankruptcy reorganization and be bailed out by the federal government. While Ford was also affected by the crisis, it decided to power through on its own and did not take the bail out. We actually have a lot of respect for Ford as a result of this. They did not take the easy way out.

The year 2014 saw saw the biggest (seasonally adjusted annualized) sales in history with 16.98 million vehicles.

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Things To Consider When Selecting An Animal Hospital For Your Pet

It is not wrong to say that after home, an animal hospital is the next important thing for your lovely pet. It is essential to select the one for your pet so that in case of an emergency you can take your pet without any delay. You need to see that the hospital you are selecting has a specialized team of doctors and the trained staff. It is important to note that the animal hospitals aren’t just offering treatment of domestic animals and pets rather wild animals that are ill or injured in any accident.

Selecting a veterinary hospital may seem like a simple task, however there are a number of factors associated with selecting the best hospital for your needs. It is not only the location of the hospital that matters a lot, the hospital must have the hours of operation that match your work schedule.

A special bond is developed between the pets and their owners. It is for this reason; they become your very close friend or family member is a very short duration of time. When you adopt a pet, there come my responsibilities. One of these responsibilities is arranging a suitable animal hospital where general checkups as well as complicated operations in time of need are possible.

In addition to the location, it is also important to consider the services that are available with the hospital. For instance, many animal hospitals offer special appointments or programs to the new clients. They offer expert advice and treatment for elderly animals or those with serious ailments. In the very first meeting, it is important to discuss with your veterinarian what exactly are your expectations and how you want to proceed further.

In addition to above, there are a few other aspects you need to consider while selecting a suitable animal hospital for your pet. For instance you should inquire about the license of the veterinarian and find out if the hospital has a registered veterinary staff or not. There are a number of tests a registered veterinary personnel have to pass. These include the regulated state tests for treating all vets. It is important to go to a registered technician because he will have the skills and experience that are considered must for the examinations and proper treatment of the vets.

You should not allow a non-registered technician to administer pills and shots or to treat your pet as this can prove to be very dangerous. It is also important to first tour any animal hospital to interview the veterinarian. While doing so, you should observe if proper hygiene is maintained in the hospital or not; especially in the surgical rooms and examination rooms.

So, the above mentioned are a few important aspects you need to consider while selecting an animal hospital for your lovely pet.

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Santiago, Chile’s Best Hospitals

Santiago is the capital of Chile and also the largest city of the country. Santiago is the center of finance and trade in Chile and the headquarters of many multinational companies in the country are located here. The city has many well-known shopping centers and high-rise architecture and has become one of the most modern metropolitan areas of Latin America.

Santiago has many good hospitals in both public and private sectors. Many of the leading private hospitals offer world-class health care service, which is affordable too. These hospitals are well equipped and accept all major health insurance companies.

This is a brief description of some of the major hospitals in Santiago.

Clinica Las Condes located at Lo Fontecilla 441 – Las Condes, Santiago is a reputed private hospital in Chile and Latin America that has all modern medical facilities to deliver excellent health care. The hospital founded in 1978 by a famous doctor has now achieved the prestigious Joint Commission International accreditation and has affiliation with Johns Hopkins Medicine International for training. This 220-bedded modern hospital has well equipped specialties in every branches of medicine. The hospital’s surgery department is well known and performs most modern laparoscopic surgery for digestive endocrine tumors, breast surgery using advanced technique like mammography, stereotactic biopsy equipment, and trauma surgery. CLC has facilities in blood bank, clinical laboratory, diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine and physiotherapy. The hospital has many special centers like anti smoking center, kidney stone, travel medicine, advanced center for epilepsy and spine center. Its new emergency service with separate laboratory system was built under the guidance of Johns Hopkins Hospital,US. This favorite hospital among the foreign patients offers luxurious accommodation and has agreements with all major insurance companies. Phone: (56-2 ) 210 4000

Clínica Alemana is one of the leading private hospitals in Chile and is situated at Av. Vitacura 5951 – Vitacura – Santiago. This hospital was founded by a well-reputed nonprofit foundation-“Sociedad de Beneficencia Hospital Alemán”- that has established many modern hospitals across the country. This 350-bedded hospital with 18 operating rooms offers best medical service to over 35, 000 patients annually by employing more than 700 eminent doctors and 3000 dedicated staff. This multidisciplinary healthcare facility has full-fledged departments in cardiology, ENT, neurology, pediatrics, gynecology, gastroenterology, psychology, bronchopulmonology, physical therapy and many more. Clínica Alemana has many special centers like comprehensive adolescent care unit, breast care center, center for oral and maxillofacial surgery, round the clock blood bank, radiation therapy center, maternity ward, and five well-equipped ICUs. This hospital possesses an outstanding diagnostic imaging department with service in radiology, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, mammography, MRIs, Computed Tomography and angiography. The hospital staffs some of the best surgeons in the country and its surgery department has five different kinds of operating rooms (OR) including main operating room, cardiology OR, obstetrics/ gyn OR. The hospital has well equipped emergency department with separate general emergency room and pediatric emergency room. Clínica Alemana offers comfortable accommodation in various rooms and suites including rooms for non-paying patients and provides all modern facilities. Phones: (56-2) 210 1111

Hospital San Juan De Dios situated at Huérfanos 3255, Santiago, is another major hospital in the city that offers complete and cost effective medical service. The Western Metropolitan Health Service manages this service-oriented polyclinic, founded in 1954.This is also a premier teaching hospital and has affiliation with the University of Chile. Hospital San Juan De Dios has four large buildings and staffs 332 doctors and 17 dental practitioners. The hospital has lounges and restrooms for users, well-equipped coronary care unit, new custom delivery rooms and modern Surgical ICU. The hospital has adult and children sub specialties in all major departments. The hospital has an emergency sector featuring 3 focus rooms of 19 beds, an observation room, a modern recovery room and a procedures room. Hospital San Juan De Dios has implemented AUGE system to improve care for the sick and included more than 50health problems in this like chronic renal failure, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, advanced palliative care and congenital heart diseases in children. Phone: (0)2 360 1053

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Storing Linens in a Hospital

Clean and sterile linens, changed frequently, can create the baseline of infection control at any major health care facility, but creating a proper linen care policy does not happen by accident. A hospital administrator needs to establish and enforce strict policies for storing bedding and other cloth in the hospital, whether soiled or clean.

Soiled Linens

Staff members tasked with the removal of soiled linens should be trained in the proper removal and handling of dirty sheets, towels and washcloths. While at home it may be no big deal to shake sheets out to find wayward socks, hospital staff need to be reminded that virtually every patient is a potential source of infection. Staff members should wear gloves whenever handling soiled bedding, and it should be folded toward the middle so that any contaminants in the sheets remain there.

Once the soiled bedding is collected, it should be placed in clearly marked carts or in bags which can then be closed, preventing infectious material and odors from the linens from permeating the area.

Soiled linens should then be pretreated with stain remover as necessary and placed in a loosely loaded washing machine. Stuffing as many sheets as possible into the washer is a good way to prevent cleanliness. They should be washed in hot water and detergent for a minimum of 10 minutes at 105 degrees Fahrenheit before being dried in dryers that reach a minimum of 160 degrees.

Clean Linens

Clean linens should be handled by staff members also wearing gloves to prevent them from transferring contaminants. Clean linens should be folded in an area separate from the handling area for soiled linens. Once folded, the bedding must be placed in clean laundry bags or on covered laundry carts for transporting to proper storage areas.

Unlike a home linen closet which typically gets cleaned during spring and fall cleaning or when things start tumbling down, hospital linen storage areas should be sanitized and sterilized often, preferably at least once a week. Clean linens should be kept in orderly stacks in the linen storage facility and removed only as needed. For transport between the linen storage area and the site where they are needed, clean linens should be kept on a linen cart which is sterilized daily. The cart should be kept covered.

The recommendations for hospital linen storage help prevent the spread of infectious disease and can easily be met by a professional linen service. A professional linen service can be contracted to maintain the cleanliness of the hospital’s linen storage area as well as providing clean and sanitized linens. Professional linen services can provide proper storage and delivery of hospital linens as well as inventory and linen maintenance.

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Things To Keep In Mind While Designing A Hospital Logo

Hospital services are increasing and becoming like any other corporate business day by day therefore a hospital logo should be managed like any other corporate identity.

Hospital logo design is the best way to represent the healthcare services you intend to provide to your target audience.

It is the graphic representation of your hospitals identity. By looking at the logo your target audience gets an idea of your professionalism and expertise. What things should be kept in mind while designing a hospital logo?

• What’s the hospital mission and for whom are you designing the logo for?

The first thing you should be very clear is what is the mission of the hospital? Is it providing services to the under privileged or is targeting the elites of the society.

For instance if you are targeting the underprivileged class of the society logo should reflect a warm feeling, use of soft colors with images people easily relate conveys your message to your audience in a much effective way.

A more businesslike approach is required for targeting the elite using sharp colors and images with bold outlook attracts the elites and educated class.

• Appropriate Choice for hospital logo design

Color

Color choice is very important while creating a hospital logo. It should be designed to grab the attention of the audience while giving them a sense of security and trust. Colors play an effective role in conveying what your hospital services stands for, usually red, blue, green or any bright color is used in hospital logo mainly to grab the attention.

Graphic

Most people hold the misconception that a logo should always suggest what a company does. This is not true for instance it is not always necessary to show a dry cleaning machine in a cleaning logo. Hospital logos should show the specialties that you offer, the graphics and symbols used in the logo should convey the sense of comfort and professionalism. Use of relevant medical symbols or images of the areas of specialty like orthopedics or gynecology change the entire look of the logo giving it a feel of geniuses and effectiveness.

Font

Font is yet another important part of your logo design. Using a stylish perky font for a hospital design is appropriate?? Always use a simple straight font that is readable and understandable by all audience.

Like any other business a hospital also has its own personality but most often we see almost similar logos presenting different hospitals using identical images, fonts and colors.

The most important thing for a hospital is to build trust and reliability among the audience therefore hospital logos should be designed while keeping in the mind the individuality, trust, responsibility as well as it should be compelling.

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Three Good Hospitals in Baku

The Republic of Azerbaijan is one of the previous constituent republics that made up the United Soviet Socialist Republic or the USSR. The country is located in Transcaucasia, on the shores of the Caspian Sea. It has Russia, Georgia, Armenia and Iran, as its neighbors. Azerbaijan underwent a lot of political assaults and disputes. However, as of late, it has come out of its past and is gradually developing an independent economy, by banking on its oil and gas resources. The healthcare industry is not very well developed, but it has come a long way from the past.

The country has Baku as its capital city. Baku is a top tourist spot and draws huge numbers of visitors, from all corners of the world. The medical facilities are among the best available in all of Azerbaijan. There are both public hospitals as well as privately run clinics in Baku. The public hospitals house ample beds but suffer from lack of adequate practitioners or related staff. However, for basic treatment tourists can seek the aid of these public hospitals.

The private clinics are a better option for more specialized treatment and complications. These clinics along with few international hospitals offer up to date, quality treatment to their visitors. There are separate wards for accidents and emergencies as well. The doctors are well qualified. The hospitals have labs attached that give accurate test results. The nurses are well trained and extremely caring as well. The hospitals have a sufficient number of beds. However, patients are recommended to bring their own basic toiletries as Baku clinics often fall short in that area.

Language seems to be the main concern of foreign patients of Baku hospitals. As of late it has been observed that many Baku doctor are comfortable conversing with their patients in English. It is, however, always safe to get in touch with your respective embassies, in order to obtain a list of doctors who speak your language.

The most popular hospitals and clinics among tourists visiting Baku are Western Medical, Turkish-American Medical Centre, Oil Workers Hospital, Mediclub Centre, Mediclub Paedriatic, German Medical Hospital, and Central Clinical Hospital.

MediClub Centre:

More than a traditional Hospital, the MediClub Centre can be branded as a complete medical assistance organization. Tourists can receive excellent treatment at MediClub Centre. The doctors and staff are very conversant in English, the wards are clean and there are specialized departments to treat various types of illnesses. The food served at this center is of great quality and the help lines to the clinics are open round the clock. The ambulance service is very active and will be able to provide emergency transportation easily. The doctors and nurses take proper care to ensure the satisfaction of all of their patients. All that expats need to receive care from this center is a card that allows them to access the quality services on offer by the MediClub group.

German Medical Hospital:

Set up under German authority, the German Medical hospital is one of the leading medical service providers in Baku. The staff members are well qualified and trained in the western methods of medicine. The facilities are up to date as is the equipment which is state of art. Tourists may also come across staff who possess a working knowledge of English.

Turkish-American Medical Centre:

Dating back to 1998, the Turkish-American Medical Centre is one of the most modernized medical centers that caters to tourists and residents alike. The treatment methods, labs and facilities are all at the latest standards. The staff and doctors are committed and well qualified. The hospital has departments for almost all aspects of medicine and diseases.

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